Defined as “the movement and attempt of the mind between the known and the unknown,” thinking is considered one of the advantages of the human being. For this reason, nāṭiqiyyah (that is, the power of thinking and intellection) is regarded as the distinctive differentia (faṣl) of man over other animals. Yet, undoubtedly, a human being does not always conclude correctly; rather, he sometimes arrives at wrong conclusions. In other words, the power of thinking is something which is basically God-given and inherent, yet human beings may do wrong in utilizing and applying this faculty to discover the unknown.
As logic is like a guidebook that shows us the way of correct thinking and that its rules specify instances of mistakes in thinking, it obviously is born out of the necessity to avoid the occurrence of mistake in thinking.
Patterned after Ibn Sīnā’s (Avicenna) classic treatment of the subject, “Learning Logic: A Short Course” is a standard textbook in the Islamic seminary (ḥawzah al-‘ilmiyyah) that concisely, yet comprehensively, deals with such topics as the usage and definition of logic; expressions (alfāẓ); classification of words; concept (mafhūm) and referent (miṣdāq); universal (kullī) and particular (juz’ī); the four relationships; the five universals; definition (ḥadd) and its types; proposition (qaḍiyah) and its kinds; modals; conversion (‘aks); argumentation and its kinds; conjunctive and exceptive syllogism; induction (istiqrā’) and analogy (qiyās); the five skills; proof (burhān); dialectics (jadal); fallacy (mughāliṭah); rhetoric (khaṭābah); and poetry (si‘r).