Archives for islamic books

Assessment of Hume’s Objections to the Argument of Design

David Hume (1711-1776) of Scotland was one of the empiricist and skeptic philosophers of the West. He opposed many metaphysical foundations such that he had also disputed the proofs of the existence of God. In view of the fact that during his time the most popular proof ever presented for the existence of God in the Western world was the argument of design or teleological argument, he had also posed a serious challenge to it, raising some objections to it.
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The Natural and the Moral Action

Now, in general, what is akhlāq or, in the expression of the Noble Messenger, akhlāq mukarramatī? From where should we begin? We have said that we shall begin from the admitted opinions and indisputable facts. For the meanwhile, we are not concerned with doubtful issues which one school of thought may regard as ‘moral’ while another school of thought may not regard the same as ‘moral’. What is certain is that most of the human actions are natural actions and
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Definitions of Religion Based on Metaphysical Foundation

Some of the philosophers of religion regard as religion any school of thought which has the following three principal elements of belief: There is a world beyond the world of tangibles; The world of nature has a purpose; and The world of being has a moral system. The third element can be analyzed in two ways. One way is that the world of being is such that it perceives what is morally good or evil. The other way is that the
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